History of furniture and interior design trends
Each era is characterised by its unique style. At the same time, it has long been impossible to define a single consistent canon that defines a universally accepted good taste. Since around the 11th century, it has been difficult to find the consistency that which characterized earlier eras. Today, design is expected above all to be unique and original. Nevertheless, it is easy to However, it is easy to identify the motifs that distinguished the design of the individual decades. Mass production has made it possible to mass-produce standardised, identical objects and thus the entry of art “under the”. In practice, this meant that everyday products, such as furniture or household appliances, began to be not only practical and comfortable, but also aesthetically pleasing and reflecting the current fashion. What trends have characterized decades from the beginning of the last century to the present day?
1880-1910: Art Nouveau
The Art Nouveau style, also known as Art Nouveau, made use of curves and dynamic lines inspired by the natural world, referring to its elements such as leaves, flowers, cobwebs, roots, and butterflies, dragonflies or feathers. Rich ornaments reigned supreme, stained glass with floral, rich ornaments, stained glass with floral motifs, pastel colors and asymmetry. When creating art nouveau art nouveau style, an attempt was made to combine stylistically coherent One of the most recognisable representatives of this trend was Antoni Gaudi, whose work can be admired, among others, in Barcelona.
Antonio Gaudí – Casa Batlló
Eugene Gaillard side chair 1900 Metropolitam Museum of Art New York
The years 1880-1940: Modernism
Although the full bloom of modernism dates from the 1920s, the turn to minimalism and modern forms was already discernible before then. The pioneers of this trend were opposed to rampant consumerism and the overwhelming variety and the overwhelming variety and splendour of interiors. They focused on simplicity and functionality. Their designs were devoid of superfluous decoration. However, they were eye-catching with their unusual geometric shapes. Examples of such works include the works of Mariano Fortuny (the famous lamp), Gerrit Retveld (chair) or Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe’s (Barcelona Pavilion).
In 1919, the Bauhaus design school was opened, combining the professions of artist and technician. The design created there was extremely simple, yet highly functional. Furniture had to be lightweight, durable, robust and easy to mass-produce. The designs featured simple lines, abstract forms and eye-catching colours. Outstanding works in this trend include Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe’s Barcelona chair and Wassily Marcel’s Rohe and Marcel Breuer’s Wassily chair. The Bauhaus only lasted only a dozen years, but it changed thinking about design forever, It introduced elements of psychology into design: objects were not just to be merely pretty and practical, but also to influence lifestyles, making them ever more modern.
The years 1910-1938: Art Deco
The art deco style originated as a response to the art nouveau trend, which was characterised by a lack of discipline and a kind of chaos. Meanwhile, the new style was rich yet minimalist. Each object was characterised by noble materials, solid workmanship and attention to detail. In arrangements arrangements featured precious fabrics (such as satin, silk or velvet), lacquered wood, glass and marble. Representatives of Le Corbusier and Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann, for example, were representatives of this trend.
1940s-1960s: Mid-century modern
After the end of the war, there was a real demographic boom, which in turn was associated with the growth of cities and an increased demand for new living spaces. During this period, functionality and affordability came to the fore during this period. Fashionable products began to be available to the mass customer. The design of this period is uncomplicated, using simple lines and streamlined forms. The minimalist shapes were accompanied by strong, often kitsch colours such as orange, mustard yellow, red, pink and red. Colors such as orange, mustard yellow, lime, turquoise or intense blue. The mid-century modern style often made use of open spaces and flats without any division into zones such as the dining room, kitchen and living room. Some of the most interesting designs in this style include the famous chairs by Arne Jacobsen and Charles and Ray Eames.
1930s-1970s: Modernity and Scandinavian design.
The focus during this period was also on producing aesthetically pleasing furniture and utilitarian objects that everyone could afford, regardless of their wallet. Abstraction and Abstract Expressionism became hugely popular. There was a willingness to create furniture using minimal amounts of material and raw materials such as plywood or plastics (as can be seen in designs such as the ‘egg’ and ‘swan’ armchairs by Arne Jacobsen). The interiors were intended to be cosy, uncluttered and extremely practical.
1950s-1970s: The Space Age
During this time, space travel captured the mass imagination. Designers began to experiment, were keen to use state-of-the-art technology and made conscious reference to ideas about extraterrestrial civilisations. Characteristic elements of this period were silver finishes (those on wallpaper were made from the same foil as the spacesuits), fluid, curved forms, spherical shapes and artificial materials, as can be can be seen in projects such as the sofa made of rubber and foam sofa by Olivier Morgue (which became part of the set design for the set design in the film ‘Space Odyssey) and the sphere chair created by Eero Aarnio. The furniture and other design elements were intended to be portable and compact, such as inflatable armchairs and bags that adjust to the position of the sitter.
Postmodern arrangements combine seemingly incompatible currents such as baroque style and modernity. Futurist forms were juxtaposed with richly ornamented elements and the whole in vivid, intense colors. When designing when designing an interior in this style, it was not necessary to follow any specific rules: originality, eclecticism and individuality were in demand. Afamous representative of postmodernism was Roberto Venturi.
Year 1978-1984: Industrial Style
The industrial style can be characterized as anti-designer, promoting low-budget and often self-made furniture and utilitarian objects. Interiors of this type referred to abandoned factory buildings and warehouses inhabited by artists. Their characteristic elements were open open spaces, concrete floors, exposed brick and iron supports. When creating a design in this style, care should be taken to avoid raw materials, cool colors, furniture and the style should include raw materials, cool colors and random furniture and furnishings. For inspiration, look no further than the work of Jasper Morrison (Thinking Man chair) and Tom Dixon (furniture by Tom Dixon) and Tom Dixon (furniture made from scrap metal).
The 1990s saw a return to the basic rules of modernism. Rooms decorated in this fashion are almost empty, completely devoid of decoration and austere. The lack of decoration is compensated for by a perfect, often high-gloss finish. Colours have also have been changed to more subtle and subdued colours, such as pastels, various shades of grey, black, white and light wood.
The 2000s: Modern retro
In the new millennium, modernized. In the interiors, candy colors, smooth, sleek colors and light woods emerged. Recreated furniture models from decades past were also a hit. The retro-style was visible not only in the interior design, but also in clothes, cars, bicycles and jewellery, bicycles and jewelry. The turn towards this direction is often explained as the effect of consumerism. One of the most recognisable creators of this style was John Pawson.
Currently: Eclecticism and ecology
For some time now, the dominant trend has been to create eclectic design has been a dominant trend for some time now, combining austere and decorative forms, rounded shapes, patterned wallpaper and intense colours. We have definitively rejected the rigid rules of home furnishing in a particular style, instead opting for individual taste and expression. It is very common to find décor design of several different decades and contrasting trends. An interesting trend is also the increasing focus on ecology and contact with nature, expressed by elements such as raw wood, stone, wool, wicker, ceramics or large numbers of living plants.